OAuth Token Exchange spec adding URIs for SAML assertions

OAuth logoA new draft of the OAuth 2.0 Token Exchange specification has been published that adds token type URIs for SAML 1.1 and SAML 2.0 assertions. They were added in response to actual developer use cases. These parallel the existing token type URI for JWT tokens.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

OAuth Authorization Server Metadata spec incorporating IETF last call feedback

OAuth logoThe OAuth Authorization Server Metadata specification has been updated to incorporate feedback received during IETF last call. Thanks to Shwetha Bhandari, Brian Carpenter, Donald Eastlake, Dick Hardt, and Mark Nottingham for their reviews. See the Document History appendix for clarifications applied. No normative changes were made.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) spec using CBOR diagnostic notation

IETF logoDraft -01 of the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification updates the examples to use CBOR diagnostic notation, thanks to Ludwig Seitz. A table summarizing the “cnf” names, keys, and value types was added, thanks to Samuel Erdtman. Finally, some of Jim Schaad’s feedback on -00 was addressed (with more to be addressed by the opening of IETF 100 in Singapore).

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

CBOR Web Token (CWT) specification adding CBOR_Key values and Key IDs to examples

IETF logoA new CBOR Web Token (CWT) draft has been published that adds CBOR_Key values and Key IDs to examples. Thanks to Samuel Erdtman for working on the examples, as always. Thanks to Giridhar Mandyam for validating the examples!

I believe that it’s time to request publication, as there remain no known issues with the specification.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Initial Working Group Draft of Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs)

IETF logoThe initial working group draft of the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification has been posted. It contains the same normative content as draft-jones-ace-cwt-proof-of-possession-01. The abstract of the specification is:

This specification describes how to declare in a CBOR Web Token (CWT) that the presenter of the CWT possesses a particular proof-of-possession key. Being able to prove possession of a key is also sometimes described as the presenter being a holder-of-key. This specification provides equivalent functionality to “Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)” (RFC 7800), but using CBOR and CWTs rather than JSON and JWTs.

I look forward to working with my co-authors and the working group to hopefully complete this quickly!

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

OAuth Authorization Server Metadata spec incorporating Area Director feedback

OAuth logoThe OAuth Authorization Server Metadata specification has been updated to incorporate feedback from Security Area Director Eric Rescorla. Thanks to EKR for his useful review. A number of defaults and restrictions are now better specified.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

CBOR Web Token (CWT) specification addressing all known issues

IETF logoA new CBOR Web Token (CWT) draft has been published that updates the diagnostic notation for embedded objects in the examples. Thanks to Samuel Erdtman for making these updates. Thanks to Carsten Bormann for reviewing the examples!

This addresses all known issues with the specification. I believe that it is now time to request publication.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Initial working group draft of JSON Web Token Best Current Practices

OAuth logoI’m happy to announce that the OAuth working group adopted the JSON Web Token Best Current Practices (JWT BCP) draft that Yaron Sheffer, Dick Hardt, and I had worked on, following discussions at IETF 99 in Prague and on the working group mailing list. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

JSON Web Token Best Current Practices draft describing Explicit Typing

OAuth logoThe JWT BCP draft has been updated to describe the use of explicit typing of JWTs as one of the ways to prevent confusion among different kinds of JWTs. This is accomplished by including an explicit type for the JWT in the “typ” header parameter. For instance, the Security Event Token (SET) specification now uses the “application/secevent+jwt” content type to explicitly type SETs. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) spec addressing review comments

IETF logoThe Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification has been updated to address comments received since its initial publication. Changes were:
  • Tracked CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims Registry updates.
  • Addressed review comments by Michael Richardson and Jim Schaad.
  • Added co-authors Ludwig Seitz, Göran Selander, Erik Wahlström, Samuel Erdtman, and Hannes Tschofenig.
Thanks for the feedback received to date! The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Security Event Token (SET) specification preventing token confusion

IETF logoA new version of the Security Event Token (SET) specification has been published containing measures that prevent any possibility of confusion between ID Tokens and SETs. Preventing confusion between SETs, access tokens, and other kinds of JWTs is also covered. Changes were:
  • Added the Requirements for SET Profiles section.
  • Expanded the Security Considerations section to describe how to prevent confusion of SETs with ID Tokens, access tokens, and other kinds of JWTs.
  • Registered the application/secevent+jwt media type and defined how to use it for explicit typing of SETs.
  • Clarified the misleading statement that used to say that a SET conveys a single security event.
  • Added a note explicitly acknowledging that some SET profiles may choose to convey event subject information in the event payload.
  • Corrected an encoded claims set example.
  • Applied grammar corrections.
This draft is intended to provide solutions to the issues that had been discussed in IETF 98 Continue reading "Security Event Token (SET) specification preventing token confusion"

Authentication Method Reference Values is now RFC 8176

IETF logoThe Authentication Method Reference Values specification is now RFC 8176. The abstract describes the specification as:
The amr (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined and registered in the IANA “JSON Web Token Claims” registry, but no standard Authentication Method Reference values are currently defined. This specification establishes a registry for Authentication Method Reference values and defines an initial set of Authentication Method Reference values.
The specification defines and registers some Authentication Method Reference values such as the following, which are already in use by some Google and Microsoft products and OpenID specifications:
  • face” – Facial recognition
  • fpt” – Fingerprint
  • hwk” – Proof-of-possession of a hardware-secured key
  • otp” – One-time password
  • pin” – Personal Identification Number
  • pwd” – Password
  • swk” – Proof-of-possession of a software-secured key
  • sms” – Confirmation using SMS
  • user” – Continue reading "Authentication Method Reference Values is now RFC 8176"

CBOR Web Token (CWT) specification addressing WGLC feedback

IETF logoA new CBOR Web Token (CWT) draft has been published that addresses the Working Group Last Call (WGLC) feedback received. Changes were:
  • Say that CWT is derived from JWT, rather than CWT is a profile of JWT.
  • Used CBOR type names in descriptions, rather than major/minor type numbers.
  • Clarified the NumericDate and StringOrURI descriptions.
  • Changed to allow CWT claim names to use values of any legal CBOR map key type.
  • Changed to use the CWT tag to identify nested CWTs instead of the CWT content type.
  • Added an example using a floating-point date value.
  • Acknowledged reviewers.
Thanks to Samuel Erdtman for doing the majority of the editing for this draft. As always, people are highly encouraged to validate the examples. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs)

IETF logoWith the CBOR Web Token (CWT) specification nearing completion, which provides the CBOR equivalent of JWTs, I thought that it was also time to introduce the CBOR equivalent of RFC 7800, “Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)”, so that applications using CWTs will have a standard representation for proof-of-possession keys. I know that PoP keys are important to ACE applications, for instance. I therefore took RFC 7800 and produced the CBOR/CWT equivalent of it. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

CBOR Web Token (CWT) specification correcting inconsistencies in examples

IETF logoA revised CBOR Web Token (CWT) draft has been published that corrects inconsistencies in the examples. Thanks to Jim Schaad for validating the examples and pointing out the inconsistencies and to Samuel Erdtman for fixing them. As before, people are highly encouraged to validate the updated examples. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

AMR Values specification addressing Stephen Farrell’s comments

OAuth logoSecurity area director Stephen Farrell had asked us to make it as clear as possible to people who might be registering new “amr” values that names can identify families of closely-related authentication methods. This is now said right in the IANA Registration Template, so that people who might not have read the spec can’t miss it.

FYI, all the previous IESG DISCUSSes have now been cleared, so hopefully that means this is the last version to be published before the Authentication Method Reference Values specification becomes an RFC.

Thanks again to Stephen for his always-thorough reviews of the specification.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

OAuth Authorization Server Metadata spec incorporating WGLC feedback

OAuth logoThe OAuth Authorization Server Metadata specification has been updated to incorporate the working group last call feedback received. Thanks to William Denniss and Hannes Tschofenig for their reviews. Use of the “https” scheme for the “jwks_uri” URL is now required. The precedence of signed metadata values over unsigned values was clarified. Unused references were removed.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

CBOR Web Token (CWT) with better examples and a CBOR tag

IETF logoA new CBOR Web Token (CWT) draft is available with completely rewritten and much more useful examples, thanks to Samuel Erdtman. There are now examples of signed, MACed, encrypted, and nested CWTs that use all of the defined claims (and no claims not yet defined). A CBOR tag for CWTs is now also defined. People are highly encouraged to review the new examples and validate them. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

AMR Values specification addressing IESG comments

OAuth logoThe Authentication Method Reference Values specification has been updated to address feedback from the IESG. Identifiers are now restricted to using only printable JSON-friendly ASCII characters. All the “amr” value definitions now include specification references. Thanks to Stephen Farrell, Alexey Melnikov, Ben Campbell, and Jari Arkko for their reviews. The specification is available at: An HTML-formatted version is also available at: